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By A. Daguerre

Analyzing contemporary coverage responses to social exclusion within the US, France, Denmark, the united kingdom, and on the ecu point considering 1997, Daguerre argues that the advance of energetic labour industry rules isn't the resolution and that the reforms are indicative of a shift in the direction of conditional welfare. The publication is predicated on in-depth interviews with key coverage makers.

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Extra resources for Active Labour Market Policies and Welfare Reform: Europe and the US in Comparative Perspective

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The crucial question, then, is to identify the actors who initiate or indeed resist paradigm shifts, and under which Introduction 21 conditions they operate. This is where the policy network model is particularly useful, as it complements various ideational approaches or discourses analyses which tend to overlook the crucial question of who holds power in the polity. The policy network and advocacy coalition models represent the second body of literature addressed in this book (Daguerre, 2000; Grant, 2005; Haas, 1992a and 1992b; Jenkins-Smith and Sabatier, 1994; Kubler, 2000; Marsh, 1998; Marsh and Rhodes, 1992; Richardson, 2000; Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith, 1999; Smith, 1993).

Overall, the implementation of a strong 'active line' was presented to the general public as a return to the normative roots of the Danish welfare state as opposed to the imposition of US workfare (Cox, 2001). Danish activation discourses emphatically emphasised the need to educate the workforce rather than placing the unemployed into low-paid jobs, but since the late 1990s spending efforts on training have sharply declined. Since 2002, the Conservativeliberal government has pursued more radical reforms based on the idea that social assistance claimants face a strong disincentive to take up lowpaid jobs owing to generous welfare benefits.

The new law required states to raise the proportion of adults in full-time work, training and education, and defined a new sanctions regime for individuals failing to comply with the employability plan. However, both the recipient and the welfare agency, in most cases the county welfare office, signed a contract which specified the obligations of both parties, thus linking the obligations of individuals to state responsibilities (Wiseman, 2001: 225). The FSA was never completely implemented because of a lack of adequate federal funding.

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