Download Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change by So Kazama, Ayumu Sato, Seiki Kawagoe (auth.), Akimasa Sumi, PDF

By So Kazama, Ayumu Sato, Seiki Kawagoe (auth.), Akimasa Sumi, Kensuke Fukushi, Ai Hiramatsu (eds.)

In fresh many years there was a turning out to be know-how of ways tricky the interactions are among humans and the surroundings. thankfully, growth has been made in knowing this dating, and new applied sciences were powerful in addressing environmental difficulties. although belatedly, there was an acknowledgment of the incompatibility of the world's finite assets with humankind's more and more higher wishes for them, and of the way this type of problem calls for broadened collaboration between engineers, social scientists, politicians and fiscal powers. international contract that the basic problems with the twenty-first century can't be solved through anybody self-discipline has resulted in the concept that of sustainability. The transdisciplinary contributions chosen for inclusion during this publication tackle those matters with an summary of the varied fields of analysis relating to sustainability. This selection of paintings is meant to pave the best way for additional collaboration between scientists and international locations as well.

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Extra info for Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change

Sample text

067 (unit: billion USD) the benefit to protect from 100-year flooding. The high-benefit areas are located in urban areas due to the high costs of flood damage in these areas. 1 shows the relationship between the average annual expected damage costs and return periods. In this calculation, the interval average damage is the average value of damage costs in both return periods, the interval probability is the difference between both annual average extreme probabilities, and the product of these values is the average annual expected damage cost.

Furthermore, supplies of soybeans are linked with oil and oil meal production. The own-price elasticity of feed demand is very high and a production shock in soybeans, such as a drought in a major producing country, will lead to an expansion of the variance in prices. Finally, variations in the producer prices of five crops are investigated. 7 shows the average CV of producer prices in major producing countries between 2006 and 2010 and again between 2026 and 2030. Variations in producer prices will increase for all countries for all crops.

Increasing the concentration of CO2 leads to positive impacts on crop growth; at the same time, however, the higher temperatures of global warming can obstruct crop growth. The rise in temperature shortens the growth period due to early flowering and fruit-bearing, and decreases the nourishment sent to the seed due to increased respiration; hence, seeds may not fully develop. Furthermore, high temperatures during the flowering period cause spikelet sterility. In the case of Japanese rice, it becomes difficult for the anther to tear when the air temperature is over 34°C, preventing pollination.

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