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By John H. Holland

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Extra info for Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence

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Then the plan can be representedby the two- argument function 'T:I X (1- + (1. Here the structureto be tried at time t + I , al ( t + I ), along with the updated memory3Jt(t + I ), is givenby (al ( t + I ), 3Jt(t + I = d( t + I ) = or(l (t), d( t = or(l (t), (al( t), 3Jt(t ). ( Theprojectionof 'I' on 3Jt, '1'. :1 X al X 3Jt- + 3Jt definedso that 'I'. ) It is clear that any theoremsor interpretationsestablished for the simpleform 'I': lxa -+a ' can at oncebe elaborated , without loss of generalityor rangeof application, to the form '1':1 X (al X 3Jt) - + (al X 3Jt).

Genesact in many ways, affecting many physiological and morphological characteristics which are relevant to survival. All of these come together into the " or selective value. . sufficient parameter 66fitness Similarly environmental fluctuation , patchiness, and productivity can be combined . . in . . [ a] measure of environmental uncertainty . . Levins in ChangingEnvironments( pp. 6- 7) . The phenotypeis the product of the harmoniousinteractionof all genes " .. geneproduct" in the neededquantity .

Different structures may of course be capableof receivingdifferent rangesof signals. That is, if IA is the range of signals which A can receive, then for A ' . ~ A it may be that IA ~ IAI. To keep the presentation simple, I is used to designatethe total range of signals U AE:GIA receivable by structures in d . The particular information I ( t ) received by the adaptive systemat time t will then be constrained to the subsetof signalsI G(I) C I which the structure at time t, Ci(t ), can receive. I may have many components corresponding, say, to different sensors.

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