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And then a Miracle Occurs points bound together by differential equations. In his ten-year search for the general theory Einstein was driven, not by any effort to codify data, but rather by demands for rational coherence, and an abstract “principle of equivalence”. He sent the finished work to his friend Max Born saying that no argument in its favor would be given, because once the theory was understood no such argument would be needed. The critical tests were carried out, and the predictions of the theory were confirmed.

However, it is only the whole formula that really counts anyway: only it can be compared directly to experiment. What goes on unobserved, and unobservable, at the atomic level is unimportant to the practical man of science. This practical, or pragmatic, approach to quantum theory is called the Copenhagen interpretation. It avers that we scientists should be content with rules that allow us to compute all empirically verifiable relationships between our observations. This view claims that no “deeper understanding” is really a proper part of science.

These two branches will be confined to two different regions, in terms of the position of the pointer. These two regions must be well separated, on the scale of visibly detectable differences, if the two alternative possible outcomes are to be readily distinguishable by direct observation of the pointer. But which of the two alternative possible outcomes “actually occurs”? That is determined, in Bohm’s model, by where the classically described pointer ends up, after the measurement operation has been completed.

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