By Hywel Williams
The 500 years that separate the mid-tenth century from the mid-15th century represent a serious and formative interval within the historical past of Europe. This was once the age of the procedure of felony and army legal responsibility referred to as 'feudalism', and of the start and consolidation of strong kingdoms in England, France and Spain; it was once an period of urbanization and the growth of alternate, of the development of the nice Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals, of courtly romance and the artwork of the troubadour, and of the founding of celebrated seats of studying in Paris, Oxford and Bologna. however it used to be additionally an epoch characterized by way of brutal army event within the launching of armed pilgrimages to disencumber Jerusalem from Muslim regulate, of the brutal dynastic clash of the Hundred Years' conflict and of the devastating pandemic of the Black dying. In a chain of scholarly yet available articles - observed via an array of gorgeous and real pictures of the period, plus timelines, maps, boxed gains and demonstrate prices - wonderful historian Hywel Williams sheds revelatory mild on each point of a wealthy and intricate interval of ecu heritage. Ottonians and Salians; upward push of the Capetians; Normans in England; start of the city-states; The Normans in Sicily; the 1st campaign; The Investiture contest; The Hohenstaufen; The Angevin Empire; 12th-century Renaissance; Triumph of the Capetians; The 3rd campaign; The Albigensian campaign; the honor of Islamic Spain; the dominion of Naples; The Hundred Years battle I; The Hundred Years conflict II; Avignon and the Schism; The Golden Age of Florence; The Reconquista; Popes, Saints and Heretics; Medieval society; Medieval tradition; Medieval war.
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Extra resources for Age of Chivalry: The Story of Medieval Europe, 950 to 1450
As crowned Roman emperors, the Ottonian dynasty could nominate West Francia’s senior clergy, and these placemen enforced their patrons’ policy by refusing to back the later Carolingian rulers of the western kingdom. Adalberon, the archbishop of Rheims, was one such nominee and his support for Hugh Capet had been crucial at the assembly of 987. Although Charles of Lorraine—King Lothair’s younger brother—had a legitimate Carolingian claim to succeed the childless Louis V, it was not difficult to find reasons why he should be denied a crown.
The king was formally canonized by the papacy in 1161, and thereby acquired his soubriquet. Edward’s remains were then placed in a shrine at Westminster Abbey in a ceremony that took place in 1163 with Aelred (1110–67), abbot of the Cistercian monastery at Rievaulx in Yorkshire, preaching the sermon. Aelred wrote his own version of Edward’s life, and his many other works include a Genealogy of the Kings of the English which was partly intended to show that Henry II (r. 1154–89) was a true descendant of Anglo-Saxon kings.
Harald III Hardrada, king of Norway, therefore pursued a claim to the throne, and Harold of England’s estranged brother Tostig Godwinson, the earl of Northumbria, supported him. Harold’s army gained a great victory over the invading Norwegian army at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York on September 25, 1066, in the course of which Tostig and Harald Hardrada were killed. Having marched south from Yorkshire to Sussex, the English army was already exhausted when it fought the battle that was joined at Hastings on October 14 and which ended in Harold’s defeat and death.