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Additional info for An introduction to signal detection and estimation
In all cases, the Poynting's vector (direction of energy propagation) has also been drawn. 9, and, in general, the corresponding angles 0;, O~ are different from those of the wavevectors. 16). For the privileged directions along the optic axes only one wavevector (a unique phase velocity) appears regardless of the state of polarization. These directions correspond to the singular points of the normal surface, where the 'perpendicular to the surface giving the direction of energy flow is not defined.
16) POCKELS EFFECT: ELECTRONIC AND IONIC CONTRIBUTIONS 55 In practice, unclamped experiments are most commonly performed and, unless otherwise specified, we will always refer to rT . 1. Response times The response time T for the various contributions to the electrooptic effect can be roughly estimated as the reciprocal of the corresponding eigenfrequencies. For the direct electronic mechanism, T ~ 10- 14 s, whereas for the optical mode contribution, T ~ 10- 12 s. For the piezoelectric resonance effect (acoustical mode contribution), the eigenfrequencies depend on sample geometry and mechanical parameters, but typically lie below or around 1 MHz, leading to T ~ 10- 6 s.
2. 11. Uniaxial crystals Most optical devices based on anisotropic crystals are currently made from uniaxial crystals. Good examples are high quality polarizers, half- and quarter-wave plates and compensators made of quartz and calcite, or second harmonic generators using the phase matching method made of ADP, LiNb0 3 and others. 21b) 35 UNIAXIAL CRYSTALS Index ellipsoids Normal surface sections z same for nz,n x or llx,lly plane y x ny (a) z ny ~I same for llz,n x plane y x (b) z x (c) Index ellipsoids andsections of the normal surface by the three coordinate planes for: (0) isotropic crystals; (b) uniaxial positive crystals; (c) biaxial crystals.